Aquifer compaction and ground-water levels in south-central Arizona

by D. W. Evans

Publisher: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Publisher: Information Services [distributor] in Tucson, Ariz, Denver, CO

Written in English
Published: Pages: 54 Downloads: 297
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Places:

  • Arizona.

Subjects:

  • Water table -- Arizona.,
  • Aquifers -- Arizona.,
  • Subsidences (Earth movements) -- Arizona.

Edition Notes

Includes bibliographical references (p. 16-18).

Statementby D.W. Evans and D.R. Pool ; prepared in cooperation with the City of Tucson and Arizona Department of Water Resources.
SeriesWater-resources investigations report ;, 99-4249
ContributionsPool, D. R., Tucson (Ariz.), Arizona. Dept. of Water Resources., Geological Survey (U.S.)
Classifications
LC ClassificationsGB701 .W375 no. 99-4249
The Physical Object
Paginationvi, 54 p. :
Number of Pages54
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL6820653M
LC Control Number00300218
OCLC/WorldCa43497962

In , ground-water levels in most actively subsiding areas of the San Joaquin Valley had returned. 2 Hydraulic and Mechanical Properties Affecting Ground-Water Flow and Aquifer-System Compaction, San Joaquin Valley, California Figure 1. Location of selected features in the Central Valley, California. EXPLANATION Mendota Modesto Cantua Creek. A hundred meters or more of ground-water level declines have been observed and in many places the declining trends continue at rates of mm or more per year. Aquifer-system compaction and land subsidence have accompanied ground-water depletion in many areas where unconsolidated basin-fill deposits constitute the principal aquifer systems. Coincident monitoring of gravity and water levels at 39 wells in southern Arizona indicate that water-level change might not be a reliable indicator of aquifer-storage change for alluvial aquifer. The High Plains Water-Level Monitoring Study (HPWLMS) is the USGS's response to a directive from Congress to report on water-level changes in the High Plains [Ogallala] aquifer. Figure 1. Location map showing the boundary of the High Plains aquifer, major cities and roads, and altitude of land surface.

  The extraction of groundwater can generate land subsidence by causing the compaction of susceptible aquifer systems, typically unconsolidated alluvial or basin-fill aquifer systems comprising aquifers and aquitards. Various ground-based and remotely sensed methods are used to measure and map subsidence. Many areas of subsidence caused by groundwater pumping have . Groundwater declines of several ft/yr since the 's have induced aquifer-system compaction and land subsidence of as much as ft in the Tucson basin and ft in Avra Valley, Arizona. Aquifer system compaction is affected by the layering, hydraulic diffusivity, preconsolidation-stress threshold, and stress history of the aquifer system. This page features maps that are based on annual water level monitoring programs in the Tucson basin and in Avra Valley. Groundwater levels in all available City of Tucson wells are periodically measured to maintain long-term records to assist in management of local groundwater resources. For further information, see Status and Quality of the Aquifer.   Since the well data represent head levels in a particular aquifer layer in the RGDSS model and InSAR data measure the total compaction over the entire thickness of the aquifer, the joint analysis is only valid when head measurements obtained from a confined aquifer well can be mapped to the aquifer layers where most of the compaction occurs.

Water-level declines prior to In both areas exceeded ft. Between and about ft of subsidence was measured east of Mesa. where water-level declines had exceeded ft . In aquifer systems that include semiconsolidated silt and clay layers (aquitards) of sufficient aggregate thickness, long-term ground-water-level declines can result in a vast one-time release of “water of compaction” from compacting aquitards, which manifests itself as land subsidence (fig. 2). 1. Generalized geology of the study area in south-central Arizona and parts of adjacent States. 2. Generalized long-term water-level declines through in alluvial-basin aquifers in south-central Arizona and parts of adjacent States. 3. Generalized predevelopment water-level conditions and ground-water flow directions in alluvial-basin. The Texas Water Development Board classifies the karstic Edwards and Trinity aquifers as major sources of water in south-central Texas. To effectively manage the water resources in the area, detailed maps and descriptions of the geologic framework and hydrostratigraphic units of the aquifers in Hays County, Texas are needed.

Aquifer compaction and ground-water levels in south-central Arizona by D. W. Evans Download PDF EPUB FB2

Land Subsidence and Aquifer Compaction in the Tucson Active Management Area, South-Central Arizona—– Introduction The U.S. Geological Survey monitors land subsidence and aquifer compaction caused by ground-water depletion in Tucson Basin and Avra Valley—two of the three alluvial basins within the Tucson Active Management Area (TAMA).

Evans, D.W., and Pool, D.R.,Aquifer compaction and ground-water levels in south-central Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report.

Even if water levels rose, compacted sediments would remain as-is; most compaction that occurs as a result of historically low groundwater levels is irreversible. Additionally, as the topography of the land changes by varying amounts in different places, the low areas, such as wetlands, will change size and shape, migrate to lower elevations.

WATER-LEVEL DECLINES, LAND SUBSIDENCE, AND SPECIFIC COMPACTION NEAR APACHE JUNCTION, SOUTH-CENTRAL ARIZONA By Michael C. Carpenter ABSTRACT The alluvial-aquifer system near Apache Junction, Arizona, has been compacting since the early 's because of the continuing decline of ground-water : M.C.

Carpenter. Aquifer compaction and ground-water levels in south-central Arizona Evans, D.W., and Pool, D.R.,Aquifer compaction and ground-water levels in south-central Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report54 p.

Welcome to the NWIS-Web for the Arizona Water Science Center The majority of USGS Gaging Stations are funded though a cooperative program between the USGS other interested agencies. Follow this link for information on the Cooperative Water Program with the USGS.

As ofthe U.S. Geological Survey is monitoring water-level fluctuationa dn aquifer compaction at 19 wells that are fitted with borehole extensometers in the Eloy Basin, Stanfield Basin, Avra Valley, and Upper Santa Cruz Basin.

Decreased ground-water pumping has resulted in water-level recoveries of more than feet at a well near Eloy and almost feet at a well in Avra Valley. Buy Land Subsidence and Aquifer-System Compaction in the Tucson Active Management Area, South-Central Arizona, Usgs Scientific Investigations R on FREE SHIPPING on qualified orders.

The compaction of alluvial aquifer systems that can accompany excessive ground-water pumping and resulting ground-water level declines is, by far, the single largest cause of subsidence. Photographer. USGS. Explore More Science. land subsidence; aquifer compaction; View All.

Read more about Aquifer compaction and ground-water levels in south-central Arizona Electrical-analog analysis of ground-water depletion in central Arizona Anderson, T.W.,Electrical-analog analysis of ground-water depletion in central Arizona: U.S.

Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper21 p., 4 sheets, scaleRead more about Aquifer compaction and ground-water levels in south-central Arizona; Land subsidence and earth fissures caused by ground-water depletion in southern Arizona, in Anderson, T.W. and Johnson, A.I., eds., Regional aquifer systems of the United States - Southwest alluvial basins of Arizona.

South-Central Arizona P ermanent subsidence can occur when water stored beneath ground-water levels are lowered, support previously provided by the Compaction of the aquifer system is concentrated in the aquitards. Sand and gravel Land surface Land surface Clay and silt (aquitards) Rearranged, compac.

Ignoring the elastic changes in aquifer compaction and head levels, the following relationship can be used (Hoffmann, Galloway, et al., ); (6) where Δ b is the compaction time series, Δ h is the water level time series, τ is the compaction time constant, and S kv is the inelastic skeletal storage coefficient (Bell et al., ).

The U.S. Geological Survey monitors land subsidence and aquifer-system compaction caused by ground-water depletion in Tucson Basin and Avra Valley - two of the three alluvial basins within the Tucson Active Management Area.

In springthe Global Positioning System was used to measure horizontal and vertical positions for bench marks at 43 sites to establish a network for monitoring land.

Aquifer compaction is a significant concern along with pumping-induced land subsidence. A large portion of the groundwater storage potential of many aquifers can be significantly reduced when longterm groundwater extraction, and the resulting groundwater level decline, causes permanent compaction of fine sediment layers (silts and clays).

The map, which is derived from the Ground Water Atlas of the United States, indicates the areal extent of the uppermost principal aquifers on a national scale. In this map, a principal aquifer is defined as a regionally extensive aquifer or aquifer system that has the potential to. The USGS annually monitors groundwater levels in thousands of wells in the United States.

Groundwater level data are collected and stored as either discrete field-water-level measurements or as continuous time-series data from automated recorders.

Data from some of the continuous record stations are relayed to USGS offices nationwide through telephone lines or by satellite transmissions. water-level decline and 4 inches of aquifer-system compac-tion occurred in Tucson Basin from January through December, In Avra Valley, extensometer data indicate that as much as 55 feet of water-level decline and inches of aquifer-system compaction occurred during the same time period.

Aquifer compaction and water-level change measured by a vertical extensometer in the southern part of Tucson basin is shown in figure 3. Land-subsidence measurements at the 14 vertical-extensometer sites will be used to document the relation between aquifer compaction, water-level.

The hydrogeology of Picacho Basin was studied to define the stratigraphy, basin structure, physical and hydraulic properties of the basin sediments, and predevelopment and postdevelopment conditions of ground-water flow as of The study area includes about square miles and contains a sedimentfilled asymmetric graben.

The greatest sediment thickness occurs along the east margin of. Sinceabout foot of aquifer-system compaction has been measured at a deep ( feet) borehole extensometer (Holly site) at EAFB.

More than 7 years of paired ground-water-level and aquifer-system compaction measurements made at the Holly site were analyzed for this study. Aquifers Architecture Arizona Arizona--Avra Valley Arizona--Fort Thomas Arizona--Pima County Arizona--Pinal County Arizona--Tombstone Arizona--Tucson Arizona--Tucson Basin Arizona--Tucson Region Atlantic and Pacific Railroad Company Calendars Cenozoic Geologic Period Criminals Deer--Habitat Dillinger, John, Earth movements Fire alarms Geology.

Land Subsidence and Aquifer-System Compaction in the Tucson Active Management Area, South-Central Arizona, The U.S. Geological Survey monitors land subsidence and aquifer-system compaction caused by ground-water depletion in Tucson Basin and Avra Valley - two of the three alluvial basins within the Tucson Active Management Area.

The Picacho earth fissure transects subsiding alluvial sediments near the east periphery of the Picacho basin in south-central Arizona. The basin has undergone land subsidence of as much as meters since the 's owing to compaction of the aquifer system in response to ground-water-Ievel declines that have exceeded meters.

The fissure, which extends generally north-south for   Land subsidence is a consequence of stratum compaction, which may vary in extent over different seasons and can be affected by changes in climate and groundwater level (Amelung et al.,Hoffmann et al.,Buckley et al.,Schmidt and Burgmann, ).It has been demonstrated that the effect of groundwater level change on land subsidence can be modeled.

Charting how we use water, one map at a time. The area's groundwater basin is one of more than 40 other aquifers across the state that have seen dropping water levels since Land subsidence, earth Jissures, and ground-water withdrawal in south-central Arizona, U.

LAND SUBSIDENCE Land subsidence was first detected through releveling of the U.S. Geological Survey first-order level lines by the and Geodetic Survey in ; thelandsurfacenear Eloy had subsided about foot ( m).

Releveling in indicated that subsidence. Ground-water development for agriculture in the basin-fill aquifers of south-central Arizona began in the late 's, and by the 's many of the basins had undergone intensive ground-water development.

Ground-water depletion has been widespread over these basins, and locally, water-level declines have exceeded feet. Since earth fissures were first discovered in south-central Arizona in the late 's (Seismological Potential for aquifer compaction, land subsidence, and earth fissures in Avra Valley, Pima and Earth-fissure movements associated with fluctuations in ground-water level, south-central Arizona, [abs.]: International Geological.

Land Subsidence and Aquifer-System Compaction in the Tucson Active Management Area, South-Central Arizona, - Ground-Water Occurrence and Movement,and Water-Level Changes in the Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valley Basins, Mohave County, Arizona. occur in south-central Arizona.

Figure 3. Some of the areas where subsid-ence has been attributed to the compaction of aquifer systems caused by ground-water pumpage. Figure 4. Homes at Greens Bayou near Hous-ton, Texas, where 5 to 7 feet of subsidence has .An extensive review of leveling information by Strange () Indicated that measurable land subsidence had been detected In nine ground-water areas.

Subsidence was first detected In southern Arizona In through releveling of bench marks near Eloy In the lower Santa Cruz basin (Robinson and Peterson.

). Subsequent investigations indicated that land subsidence was continuing near Eloy.in Arizona, and because of this elevated concentrations of arsenic occur in groundwater across the state.

Regions AZ November, Kristine Uhlman, Channah Rock, Janick Artiola Figure 1. Major aquifers and regions of saline groundwater (modified from WRRC, ) of granite bedrock with valuable gold ore often contain.